For this occasion, SS-Gruppenführer Karl Oberg, in charge of the German Police in France, made the trip from Paris and transmitted to Bousquet orders directly received from Heinrich Himmler. [158] In 1994 former Vichy official Paul Touvier (1915–1996) was convicted of crimes against humanity. But nevertheless, girls should preferably exercise the virtues of patience, persistence and resignation. Joseph Darnand created a "Service d'Ordre Légionnaire" (SOL), which consisted mostly of French supporters of the Nazis, of which Pétain fully approved. Germany interfered little in internal French affairs for the first two years after the armistice, as long as public order was maintained. [117], Proportionally, either number makes for a lower death toll than in some other countries (in the Netherlands, 75% of the Jewish population was murdered). ")[165] Macron made the following remark when discussing the Vel' d'Hiver roundup of Jews: "It is convenient to see the Vichy regime as born of nothingness, returned to nothingness. Conservative Catholics became prominent. President Franklin D. Roosevelt and Secretary of State Cordell Hull hoped to use American influence to encourage those elements in the Vichy government opposed to military collaboration with Germany. Vichy authorities were strongly opposed to "modern" social trends and tried through "national regeneration" to restore behaviour more in line with traditional Catholicism. Most of the victims died en route due to lack of food or water. Conversely, Vichy France became a collaborationist regime. Throughout the rest of the country, civil servants were under the formal authority of French ministers in Vichy. [111] The October 1940 Statute excluded Jews from the administration, the armed forces, entertainment, arts, media, and certain professions, such as teaching, law, and medicine. [96] The Camp des Milles, near Aix-en-Provence, was the largest internment camp in the Southeast of France; twenty-five hundred Jews were deported from there following the August 1942 raids. The first action of that government was to re-establish republican legality throughout metropolitan France. Camp Gurs received its first contingent of political prisoners in June 1940. Numerous Jewish children were prohibited from going to school, something which not even Vichy had implemented in metropolitan France. De Gaulle wanted to pursue a political position in France and agreed to have Giraud as commander-in-chief, as the more qualified military person of the two. He ordered Vichy forces there to cease resisting and co-operate with the Allies, and they did so. In October 1940, the military forces of Thailand attacked across the border with Indochina and launched the Franco-Thai War. The queues lengthened in front of shops. Some accused war criminals were judged, some for a second time, from the 1980s onwards: Paul Touvier, Klaus Barbie, Maurice Papon, René Bousquet (the head of the French police during the war) and his deputy Jean Leguay. "Wartime France: Remembering Vichy". Some of the more prominent officers were executed, while the rank-and-file were given prison terms; some of them were given the option of doing time in Indochina (1946–54) with the Foreign Legion instead of prison. [106], The Foundation initiated studies on demographics (Robert Gessain, Paul Vincent, Jean Bourgeois), nutrition (Jean Sutter), and housing (Jean Merlet), as well as the first polls (Jean Stoetzel). The government lasted from July 1940 to 1944, when the Allied liberation took place. The British changed policy, with encouragement from the Free French, to "rally French Somaliland to the Allied cause without bloodshed". The police arrested 13,152 Jews, including 4,051 children—which the Gestapo had not asked for—and 5,082 women, on 16 and 17 July and imprisoned them in the Winter Velodrome in unhygienic conditions. The government had never before attempted a comprehensive overview. These reforms have been cited as evidence of a continuity of the French administration before and after the war. In theory, the civil jurisdiction of the Vichy government extended over most of metropolitan France, French Algeria, the French protectorate in Morocco, the French protectorate of Tunisia, and the rest of the French colonial empire that accepted the authority of Vichy; only the disputed border territory of Alsace-Lorraine was placed under direct German administration. [114] About 200,000 of them, and the large majority of foreign Jews, resided in Paris and its outskirts. Democratic rule for the European population was restored in French Algeria, and the Communists and Jews liberated from the concentration camps. It gave women a key symbolic role to carry out the national regeneration. The official postwar French position was that Vichy was a German puppet state. On the other hand, technocrats such as Jean Bichelonne and engineers from the Groupe X-Crise used their position to push various state, administrative, and economic reforms. At the beginning of 1942 these conscripts were released, but there were still not enough men. He recognised the responsibility of "the French State"[120][124] for seconding the "criminal folly of the occupying country", in particular the French police, headed by René Bousquet (charged in 1990 with crimes against humanity),[163] which assisted the Nazis in the enactment of the so-called "Final Solution". Röthke also wanted to empty Drancy in order to refill it. Consequently, on 8 June, British and Commonwealth forces invaded Syria and Lebanon. For example, former President François Mitterrand had maintained that the Vichy Government, not France's Republic, was responsible. Marseilles had a reputation as an organized crime hub. The traditionalist right in France, with strength in the aristocracy and among Catholics, had never accepted the republican traditions of the French Revolution. [116], For decades, the French government argued that the French Republic had been dismantled when Philippe Pétain instituted a new French State during the war and that the Republic had been re-established when the war was over. The additional participation of Free French forces in the Syrian operation was controversial within Allied circles. In 1940, the Nazis wanted only to dump German Jews into unoccupied France. [118], The first President to accept responsibility for the arrest and deportation of Jews from France was Jacques Chirac, in a 16 July 1995 speech. The essential American position was that France should take no action not explicitly required by the Armistice terms that could adversely affect Allied efforts in the war. note], The president of the Conseil Représentatif des Institutions juives de France-Côte d'Azur, a Jewish association group, issued a strong condemnation labelling it "the utmost horror" when one of the inhabitants of such a condominium qualified this as an "anachronism" with "no consequences". The internments in Norway and Netherlands, meanwhile, were highly temporary and were rather indiscriminate; there was a brief internment peak in these countries as internment was used partly for the purpose of separating Collaborationists from non-Collaborationists. Robert Paxton: History Lesson. Thus, Pétain was approved by 65% of all Deputies and 70% of all Senators. The French government also had responsibility for preventing French citizens from escaping into exile. [53], The National Assembly gives full powers to the government of the Republic, under the authority and the signature of Marshal Pétain, to the effect of promulgating by one or several acts a new constitution of the French state. Parliament met at Vichy on July 9–10 to consider France’s future. [52] Countries recognised the Vichy government despite de Gaulle's attempts in London to dissuade them; only the German occupation of all of France in November 1942 ended diplomatic recognition. [115] According to historian Robert Paxton, 76,000 Jews were deported and died in concentration and extermination camps. This article was most recently revised and updated by,, University of Oxford - Faculty of History - Jewish Groups in Vichy France. Under the responsibility of André Tulard, head of the Service on Foreign Persons and Jewish Questions at the Prefecture of Police of Paris, a filing system registering Jewish people was created. Natzweiler included a gas chamber, which was used to exterminate at least 86 detainees (mostly Jewish) with the aim of obtaining a collection of undamaged skeletons for the use of Nazi professor August Hirt. Thus, when Knochen reported that there were 2,159 French citizens among the 3,811 prisoners at Drancy on 21 January 1943, he also asked Eichmann for permission to deport them. On 30 October 1940, Pétain made state collaboration official, declaring on the radio: "I enter today on the path of collaboration. Manow, Philip. A French collaborationist government, headquartered in the city of Vichy, in the Auvergne, governed unoccupied France. While the criminal behaviour of Vichy France was consistently acknowledged, this point of view denied any responsibility of the state of France, alleging that acts committed between 1940 and 1944 were unconstitutional acts devoid of legitimacy. The armistice allowed it a breathing space." Later, the Americans sent Jean Monnet to counsel Giraud and to press him to repeal the Vichy laws. One Senator did not vote; 8 Senators and 12 Deputies voluntarily abstained; 57 Senators and 92 Deputies involuntarily abstained. [58] Robert Murphy, Roosevelt's representative in North Africa, started preparing for a landing in North Africa in December 1940 (a year before the US entered the war). The Germans occupied northern France directly. Germany took two million French soldiers as prisoners of war and sent them to camps in Germany. Omissions? However, Nazi espionage against France after its defeat intensified greatly, particularly in southern France.[43]. Because of its unique situation in the history of France, its contested legitimacy,[1] and the generic nature of its official name, the "French State" is most often represented in English by the synonyms "Vichy France", "Vichy regime", "government of Vichy", or in context, simply "Vichy". Vichy imposed no restrictions on black people in the Unoccupied Zone; the regime even had a mulatto cabinet minister, the Martinique-born lawyer Henry Lémery. We cannot build pride upon a lie. Vichy France was recognised by most Axis and neutral powers, including the US and the USSR. Attempts to negotiate the point with Germany proved unsuccessful, and the French decided not to press the issue to the point of refusing the Armistice. [130], Vichy rhetoric exalted the skilled labourer and small businessman. Pétain excluded fascists from office in his government, and by and large his cabinet comprised "February 6 men" (i.e. [63], Following the Appeal of 18 June, debate arose among the population of French Polynesia. The July 1942 Vel' d'Hiv Roundup is a tragic example of how the French police did the Nazi work, going even further than what military orders demanded (by sending children to Drancy internment camp, last stop before the extermination camps). In his radio speeches, Pétain always used the personal pronoun je, portrayed himself as a Christ-like figure sacrificing himself for France while also assuming a God-like tone of a semi-omniscient narrator who knew truths about the world that the rest of the French did not. "[94], Besides the political prisoners already detained there, Gurs was then used to intern foreign Jews, stateless persons, Romani, homosexuals, and prostitutes. This action alone represented more than a quarter of the 42,000 French Jews sent to concentration camps in 1942, of whom only 811 would return after the end of the war. [116] This fact has been used as arguments by supporters of Vichy; according to Paxton, the figure would have been greatly lower if the "French state" had not willfully collaborated with Germany, which lacked staff for police activities. Vichy was intensely anti-Communist and generally pro-German; American historian Stanley G. Payne found that it was "distinctly rightist and authoritarian but never fascist". 28 June - General Charles de Gaulle is officially recognized by Britain as "Leader of all Free Frenchmen , wherever they may be." The long-term goal was to clear German and Italian forces from North Africa, enhance naval control of the Mediterranean, and prepare for an invasion of Italy in 1943. [104], In 1941, Nobel Prize winner Alexis Carrel, an early proponent of eugenics and euthanasia, and a member of Jacques Doriot's French Popular Party (PPF),[citation needed] advocated for the creation of the Fondation Française pour l'Étude des Problèmes Humains (French Foundation for the Study of Human Problems), using connections to the Pétain cabinet. In July 1942, under German orders, the French police organised the Vel' d'Hiv Roundup (Rafle du Vel' d'Hiv) under orders by René Bousquet and his second in Paris, Jean Leguay, with co-operation from authorities of the SNCF, the state railway company. At Vichy, Pétain established an authoritarian government that reversed many liberal policies and began tight supervision of the economy. Pierre Laval joined the government the day after the armistice was signed and became the main architect of the Vichy regime. Although in the postwar there were many who declared that Vichy collaborated with the Nazis against their will, scholarly work has shown that Vichy leaders sought out collaboration with Nazi Germany. The French government began to discuss the possibility of an armistice. Initially, Winston Churchill was ambivalent about de Gaulle, and Churchill severed diplomatic ties with Vichy only when it became clear that the Vichy government would not join the Allies. Philip Manow argues that, "Vichy represents the authoritarian, antidemocratic solution that the French political right, in coalition with the national Church hierarchy, had sought repeatedly during the interwar period and almost put in place in 1934. ». Did they all go to jail for working essentially for the Nazis? After Admiral Darlan's assassination, Henri Giraud became his de facto successor in French Africa with Allied support. They added compulsory (and volunteer) workers from occupied nations, especially in metal factories. This was known as the Syria-Lebanon campaign or Operation Exporter. In the early months of 1943, the terror [Adam] Munz and [Alfred] Feldman described in German-occupied France was still experienced by foreign Jews like themselves. This other myth refers to the alleged "protection" by Vichy of French Jews by "accepting" to collaborate in the deportation – and, ultimately, in the extermination – of foreign Jews. Darlan was neutralised within 15 hours by a 400-strong French resistance force. [58], US General Mark W. Clark of the combined Allied command made Admiral Darlan sign on 22 November 1942 a treaty putting "North Africa at the disposition of the Americans" and making France "a vassal country". Some were executed after the war. They were joined by the French mandate of Cameroun on 27 August 1940. [34] Joan of Arc who had fought against England was made into the symbol of France in part for that reason. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. What happened to the government officials of the Vichy France after WW2? In these chaotic conditions, advocates of an armistice gained the upper hand. One Senator and 26 Deputies were on the Massilia. He set up a paternalistic, authoritarian regime that actively collaborated with Germany, Vichy's official neutrality notwithstanding. In the department of the Seine, encompassing Paris and its immediate suburbs, nearly 150,000 persons, unaware of the upcoming danger and assisted by the police, presented themselves at police stations in accordance with the military order. It used propaganda, women's organisations, and legislation to promote maternity, patriotic duty, and female submission to marriage, home, and children's education. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Additionally, it was believed that the Free French were widely reviled within Vichy military circles, and that Vichy forces in Syria were less likely to resist the British if they were not accompanied by elements of the Free French. In particular, in Nice, "Italians had protected the Jews. Shortly thereafter, Pétain signed the Armistice of 22 June. Civilians suffered shortages of all varieties of consumer goods. Though the French public initially supported the regime, opinion gradually turned against the French government and the occupying German forces over time, when it became clear that Germany was losing the war, and living conditions in France became increasingly difficult. 2018. The total thus reported is slightly below 77,500 dead (somewhat less than a quarter of the Jewish population in France in 1940). [88] As soon as it was established, Pétain's government voluntarily took measures against "undesirables": Jews, métèques (immigrants from Mediterranean countries), Freemasons, Communists, Gypsies (also known as Romani), homosexuals,[89] and left-wing activists. It raised the prospect of Frenchmen shooting at Frenchmen, raising fears of a civil war. ), industrialists, fighters (LVF, etc.) "It is convenient to see the Vichy regime as born of nothingness, returned to nothingness. A resistance movement, working largely in concert with de Gaulle's movement outside the country, increased in strength over the course of the occupation. [135] The forced labour draft encouraged the French Resistance and undermined the Vichy government.[136]. Hitler ordered Case Anton to occupy Corsica and then the rest of the unoccupied southern zone in immediate reaction to the landing of the Allies in North Africa (Operation Torch) on 8 November 1942. Communications were poor and thousands of civilian refugees clogged the roads. The sincere desire to collaborate did not stop the Vichy government from organising the arrest and even sometimes the execution of German spies entering the Vichy zone. The population of the enclave was about 6,000, including known collaborationist journalists, the writers Louis-Ferdinand Céline and Lucien Rebatet, the actor Robert Le Vigan, and their families, as well as 500 soldiers, 700 French SS, prisoners of war and French civilian forced labourers. He always said no." The Americans also hoped to encourage Vichy to resist German war demands, such as for air bases in French-mandated Syria or to move war supplies through French territories in North Africa. Switzerland and other neutral states maintained diplomatic relations with the Vichy regime until the liberation of France in 1944 when Philippe Pétain resigned and was deported to Germany for the creation of a forced government-in-exile.[61]. Following the Liberation of Paris on 25 August 1944, Pétain and his ministers were taken to Sigmaringen by the German forces. Others, like Joseph Darnand, were strong anti-Semites and overt Nazi sympathizers. How did Vichy France come to be? [citation needed] The French possessions in Oceania joined the Free French side in 1940, or in one case in 1942. "It was indeed France that organised this", Macron insisted, French police collaborating with the Nazis. Marshal Philippe Pétain and Pierre Laval were the heads of the regime, responsible for the deportation of 76,000 Jews to the extermination camps built by their government. The capture of Gabon by the Allies was crucial to ensure that the entire French Equatorial Africa was out of Axis reach. These included German Jews and anti-fascists, but any German citizen (or other Axis national) could also be interned in Camp Gurs and others. Following the invasion of France via Normandy and Provence (Operation Overlord and Operation Dragoon) and the departure of the Vichy leaders, the U.S., Britain and the Soviet Union finally recognised the Provisional Government of the French Republic (GPRF) headed by de Gaulle as the legitimate government of France on 23 October 1944. A Commissariat-General for Jewish Affairs (CGQJ, Commissariat Général aux Questions Juives) was created on 29 March 1941. in contrast with Republican school texts, which had strongly implied Joan was mentally ill.[26] Vichy instructors sometimes struggled to square Joan's military heroism with the classical virtues of womanhood, with one school textbook insisting that girls ought not follow Joan's example literally, saying: "Some of the most notable heroes in our history have been women. 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