White, Jerry. Much of Poe’s writing and poetry depicts eerie, supernaturalistic scenes and elements. Here the heroine, like Lewis Carroll's Alice, creates dream visions through the looking-glass window she can see across the street. Noté /5. One that is harder to identify that could exist right next to the spectator to challenge the Victorian duality of morality and beauty through the paradox of Dorian’s influential sinful nature yet unblemished physicality. Retrouvez The Victorian Gothic: An Edinburgh Companion et des millions de livres en stock sur Amazon.fr. North Carolina University of North Carolina Press 1998. Reay, Barry. Upon its publication, the text fell under scrutiny for being controversial, vulgar, and immoral but is now regarded as one of the most provocative and philosophical texts of the late nineteenth century. Vampiric figures appeared in 18th-century poetry, such as Heinrich August Ossenfelder’s “Der Vampyr” (1748), about a seemingly vampiric narrator who seduces an innocent maiden. Though Dorian engages in a hedonistic lifestyle that is never fully explored in the initial text, leaving much to the imagination, Dorian’s reputation in the public sphere does fall under scrutiny and scandal. This, however, did not stop threats from being created to take advantage of the fear of the empire’s populace losing their position. Lord Henry reinforces this point by bluntly suggesting to Dorian upon meeting him that “there is no such thing as a good influence… all influence is immoral…” (18). Poe's Gothic world was imported from Europe, but there was by now plenty of past to exploit in America. A favourite quotation in Victorian ghost-stories is Hamlet's 'There are more things in heaven and earth, Horatio, than are dreamt of in your philosophy.' The literature of this era was preceded by romanticism and was followed by modernism or realism. Originally based in Germany, the legend shifts further East to the Balkans, apparently a more plausible domicile for such creatures in the nineteenth century. His associate Lord Henry is very interested to meet the boy who could inspire such artistic inspiration, but Basil is very protective of Dorian as he fears that his character could be manipulated under the wrong Influence. Intriguingly some people see it as one, some as the other, a girl remembers a peacock design all her life that is invisible to others, and family arguments grow out of the uncertainty. A Guide to the Gothic by Jack Clark is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted. Basil paints the portrait and presents it to Dorian, having intended to capture the innocence and beauty of the man but instead introduces him to vanity and a rival. London: Routledge, 1998. The mummy is periodically brought to life by its owner, when it does service as a kind of hit-man, persecuting other undergraduates. Stevenson, Wilde and Bierce use realism to ground their stories, but Victorian Gothic likes to mix it with 'impossible things', as in the nonsense writings of Carroll and Lear. As a literary phenomenon, the Victorian gothic manifests itself in fin-de-siècle literature both as a subversive supernatural force and as a mechanism for social critique. Through this duplicitous characterization, Wilde creates a more sinister creature outside the typical good and sublime, evil and grotesque binary of Victorian Gothic. “Introduction.” In Late Victorian Gothic Tales, edited by Rodger Luckhurst. L’ouvrage de Jarlath Killeen, Gothic Literature 1825-1914, se propose, non pas tant de synthétiser les études des trente dernières années sur le Gothique, mais d’aborder la littérature « Gothique » du dix-neuvième siècle et du début du vingtième siècle d’une façon peut-être plus neutre. Botting, Fred. The Victorian Era held a lot of big dresses and elegant hair- and they reappeared as a big inspiration to the Goth Subculture. Anne Bronte, The Tenant of Wildfell Hall. As a result of these key factors, England began to secularise. He argues that Lord Henry’s true philosophy is one of “inaction… beyond good and evil… Lord Henry never acts and never falls” (124). Though many of his social entourage know or have heard of his exploits, they don’t ostracize him due to the fact that “civilized society is never very ready to believe anything to the detriment of those who are both rich and fascinating… manners are more important than morals and… the highest respectability is of much less value than the possession of a good chef” (113). Modern readers and critics have begun to think of Gothic literature as referring to any story that uses an elaborate setting, combined with supernatural or super-evil forces against an innocent protagonist. Read more The Victorian era is defined as the years of Queen Victoria's rule from 1837 to 1901 and is defined by advanced scientific discoveries and burgeoning cultural questions of moral values. Buckton, Oliver S. Secret Selves: Confession and Same-Sex Desire in Victorian Autobiography. However, he indicates that Wilde was not interested in terrorizing his readers as he was in “saying something quite specific about the dynamics of artistic creation” (173). In the chaste Victorian era, Gothic literature provided an outlet for the exploration of sexuality. References and further Victorian Gothic texts to explore: Nathaniel Hawthorne, 'Young Goodman Brown' (1835) As a result, a need developed for engineers, accountants, lawyers, and politicians among other professions. Lord Henry presents Dorian with an obscure book without a title that in his youth had shaped many of his opinions that he promotes (19). James is particularly good at coming up with new variants on that staple of popular superstition, the curse, as in his signature story, 'Casting the Runes'. 'Atavism', fear of regression to an earlier, less civilised state – the knights, we are told, belong back in 'Catholic times' – was a fear Victorian Gothic regularly played on. The results can be seen in Tennyson’s fairy poems of the early 1830s, Charlotte Brontë hiding guilty secrets in the Gothic towers of Thornfield in Jane Eyre (1847), and the way Edgar Allan Poe's 'The Pit and the Pendulum' (1842) cruelly reconstructs the torture-chambers of the Spanish Inquisition. As stated above the book is never identified but Wilde does describe the contents of the text through Dorian’s eyes. Wilde had intended the text to be simultaneously controversial and provocative as a critique of Victorian aesthetic obsession with beauty and its culturally believed correlation with moral sensibility. Victorian Reads. Drew, John M. L. “Introduction and Notes.” In The Picture of Dorian Gray. The arts became a fixation of the Victorian middle-class population who believed that morality and virtue could be taught through its sophisticated appearance and could be simultaneously mirrored in the public forum. Conan Doyle has a wonderful tall story of an Oxford undergraduate who, lacking social skills, makes up for it by keeping a mummy in his room. The Victorians use of art as a tool for social education and moral enlightenment, and to reinforce the superficial nature of this idealistic moral society. Thomas, Donald. Guy, Josephine M. The Victorian Age: An Anthology of Sources and Documents. But upon seeing portrait after his attempt to reverse the damage that he had caused, all he saw was hypocrisy appear on the face of the portrait (176). Kingston, Angela. It expresses a commentary on many of the issues surrounding the sole aesthetical nature of Victorian society but also the issues that Wilde had to deal with personally, surrounding social expectations and his own identity and sexuality. Gothic literature developed during the Romantic period in Britain. As is quite evident from the title the kind of literature that evolved during the reign of Queen Victoria is famously known as the Victorian era literature. Art was to be an influence upon the impressionable which Wilde highlights in the beginning of his text upon first introducing Dorian Gray. As Lara Whelan states, the picturesque nature of the city became a representation of progress (100). Meanwhile Gothic had become so influential that we can detect its elements in much mainstream Victorian fiction. It was a period of revolution; the steam engine changed the nature of transport, industry and the economy which also lead to rapid urbanization as the rural working class and immigrants began to migrate to the city center for refuge and work in the growing industrial city which held a population of over three million toward the end of the nineteenth century (Schwarz 1-2). 1. In our world this is a fantasy, indulged and then abruptly curtailed as he drops through the air to his death. Wilde frequently has Basil consistently use adjectives that typically pertain to personality characteristics when discussing physical beauty. The Victorian Underworld. In doing so, Wilde unmasks Dorian beyond the supposition of his perceived morality based on his beauty and instead reveals him as the corrupt creature that is seen in the portrait (126). Achetez neuf ou d'occasion Mary Shelley’s father William Godwin was instrumental to this movement for accessible education by opening a library and publishing house called Juvenile Library and believed that his daughters should also be well educated despite their gender (Harkup 23). While Dorian and Lord Henry open up the public areas of his house to maintain outward appearances and charm the other members of the aristocracy with celebrated musicians, dinners, exotic artworks, and decorations of gold and silver, the portrait is hidden in the same space (103). Here was an ever-present sign of the ruin men brought upon their souls” (78). The portrait reflects Dorian’s soul and shows him the consequence of his sin. Despite the fact the portrait has been removed from his sight, the portrait is always on his mind and he begins to visit it periodically after consumption and indulgence as another form of pleasure seeing how much damage he has done (103). The text does not begin with a skin-crawling atmosphere typical of other popular Victorian Gothic horror texts so this event that sparks the decline of Dorian is one that is intended to shock the spectator. This is Margaret Oliphant's theme too in her lovely rite-of-passage story, 'The Library Window' (1896). Or so the old people tell her. Something profound but abstruse is being said by Wynne about the nature of perception and memory, and the story's gentle but firm ambivalence is clearly its point. Lovecraft, "The Picture in the House" (1920). Science as a discipline had existed for some time, but had steadily… To support OCR Literature A Level study. Villain. Basil makes this assertion to Lord Henry by saying, “…don’t spoil him (Dorian). E. A. Poe, 'The Fall of the House of Usher' (1839), 'The Pit and the Pendulum' (1842), 'Annabel Lee', 'For Annie' (poems) About | Accessibility | Legal Notice | Privacy, Creative Commons - Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license, Inspirational literature from the University of Oxford. London: The Biography. To further understand the context of The Picture of Dorian Gray, it is important to understand the social issues present within Victorian society. Victorian Gothic: 1832-1901 "In the Victorian era, Gothic fiction had ceased to be a dominant literary genre. Here Professor Suzanne Daly explores the ‘Imperial Gothic’, examining the ways in which ‘otherness’ and Empire were depicted in Gothic novels such as Jane Eyre, The Moonstone, Dracula and Heart of Darkness. Victorian literature is literature, mainly written in English, during the reign of Queen Victoria (1837–1901) (the Victorian era).It was preceded by Romanticism and followed by the Edwardian era (1901–1910).. The major setting for scenes as depicted in Gothic literature are Victorian style huge mansions. Social entrepreneurs such as Charles Dickens advocated for the rights of women and children and spoke often about education reform for the working class (House 10). J. Sheridan Le Fanu, 'Authentic Narrative of the Ghost of a Hand' in The House by the Churchyard (1861), 'Green Tea' (1872), Carmilla (1872) In the time of early Victorian technology, steam-trains and the electric telegraph, many writers retreated into a backward-looking world of sentiment, chivalry and terror, often modelled on the Medieval Gothic of Ann Radcliffe and Walter Scott. The story begins with an unnamed narrator arriving at his friend Roderick Usher who has been in isolation for an extended period of time and is deteriorating into madness. Hogle, Jerrold E. The Cambridge Companion to Gothic Fiction. Mid-Victorian Imperialists. Bram Stoker, 'The Judge's House' (1891) Gothic Literature in the Eighteenth Century, Edmund Burke, from On the Sublime and Beautiful (1757), Horace Walpole, excerpt from The Castle of Otranto (1764), Clara Reeve, excerpt from The Old English Baron (1778), William Beckford, excerpt from Vathek (1786), Mary Wollstonecraft, From A Vindication of the Rights of Woman: with Strictures on Political and Moral Subjects (1792), Caleb Williams; or, Things As They Are (1794), Anne Radcliffe, excerpt from The Mysteries of Udolpho (1794), Matthew Lewis, excerpt from The Monk (1796), Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Review of The Monk, Mary Shelley, excerpt from Frankenstein (1818), Jane Austen, excerpt from Northanger Abbey (1817), Charlotte Brontë, excerpt from Jane Eyre (1847), Robert Louis Stevenson, Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde (1886), Oscar Wilde, excerpt from The Picture of Dorian Gray (1890). The point of the vampire is of course to introduce some notion the exchange of bodily fluids, 'slippery blisses' (Keats) that cannot at this time be mentioned in wholesome fiction. Just one little boy in the story's long Scottish summer twilight sees what the girl sees: 'yon windy yonder in the library that is nae windy.' Great Britain Johnathan Cape, 2007. Victorian Hauntings: Spectrality, Gothic, the Uncanny and Literature | Julian Wolfreys (auth.) Book Description. 1764 The Castle of Otranto: The first Gothic novel. 'The past is not dead, it is not even past.' It was this hypocritical nature that Wilde seeks to expose with his challenge to the cultural normative. During this course, you'll: develop the skillset required to work in the heritage industry, the arts and media. In the Victorian era, Gothic novels even provided an outlet for exploration of sexuality, as seen in Edgar Allan Poe’s 1849 poem, “Annabel Lee.” 6. 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