On September 4 there was an insurrection in Paris and the Third Republic was proclaimed. the Imperial Bonapartist regime of Napoleon III from 1852 to 1870, between the Second Republic and the Third Republic, in France. France - France - The Second Republic and Second Empire: The overthrow of the constitutional monarchy in February 1848 still seems, in retrospect, a puzzling event. In 1864 , a law according the right to strike was passed, with the condition that workers were free to decide themselves whether they participated or not. Get all of Hollywood.com's best Movies lists, news, and more. 1918 - Battle of Chateau-Thierry - July 18th The combined French and American force (largely American) succeeds in taking the Germans by surprise. The revolution has been called a result without a cause; more properly, it might be called a result out of proportion to its cause. Under the Second Empire, Napoleon III pursued social policies aimed at softening the negative effects that rapid industrial development in France had had on the workers. A nineteenth-century French painter, one of the originators of Impressionism. (1849-1878) He was the king of Piedmont-Sardinia and wanted to unify Italy by gradually extending his control over the peninsula. French North Africa covered three territories: the Protectorates of Morocco in the west and Tunisia in the East, with Algeria in the centre. Second Empire, (1852–70) period in France under the rule of Emperor Napoleon III (the original empire having been that of Napoleon I). The Bourbon family’s rule of France wou… See more. Louis Napoleon Bonaparte’s victory in the December 1848 elections against General Cavaignac of June Days fame was probably due to the Napoleonic legend; another explanation stressed the fears of middle-class and peasant property owners in the face of the socialist challenge of urban workers (classes wanted protection) Ruled by Francis Joseph, Bismarck intercepts letter between France and Prussia, changes it to make things appear as if Wilhelm had insulted the French ambassador, and sent it to France to initiate a war. 1808-1889) First and only president of the Confederate States of America after the election of President Abraham Lincoln in 1860 led to the secession of many southern states. Bismarck had no intention of leaving it at that. When the colonies became a drain on British resources, Britain grew weary of the struggle to maintain empire and withdrew. Founding of the Second Republic. Discarded under the Second Empire, this motto finally established itself under the Third Republic, although some people still objected to it, including partisans of the Republic: solidarity was sometimes preferred to equality which implies a levelling of society, and the Christian connotation of fraternity was not accepted by everyone. Disliked change, liberalism and progressivism. A palace built by Louis XIV outside of Paris; it was home to Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette. On 5 October Wilhelm I and Bismarck entered the city and prepared the proclamation of the German Empire in the Palace. the equivalent of ) Germanization. Austrian archduke proclaimed emperor of Mexico as a result of French intervention in 1862; after the French withdrawal he was executed in 1867. Bismarck really wanted both territories for Prussia. After Prussia occupied Paris, Napoleon III fled, and Prussia set up an unstable republican government based on universal manhood suffrage and multiparty parliamentarianism. another name for the German Empire, united by Bismarck in 1871. It involved most of the world’s nations, including all of the great powers: Eventually forming two opposing military alliances, the Allies and the Axis. Fearing increased Russian power and an upset to the balance of power on the Continent, Great Britain and France declared war on Russia on March 28, 1854. Hapsburg emperor of Austria 1848-1916. Liberal reforms were gradually January 24, 1789 – the beginning of the election to the French Estates General or States-General (Les États-Généraux de 1789). A conservative nationalist, he led Prussia to victory against Austria (1866) and France (1870) and was responsible for the creation of the German Empire (714). Beth: It's one year before the revolution of 1848 that topples the monarchy and brings in a brief period of France's democracy, the period we call the 2nd republic. The point on the Crimean Peninsula where France and Britain attacked the Russians. Military disaster thus forced him and his ministers along the path of rapid social change and general modernization. That the British navy could outmatch anything the Americans could float was obvious, and the naval blockade was crushing to an economy dependent upon coastal traffic. Louis Napoleon Bonaparte completes coup in later 1851, proclaims self as Emperor Napoleon III; has support of many upper class and peasants who want order in France; legitimists supported him because he made peace with the church, wealthy businessmen and industrialists seen as equivalent of imperial aristocracy-- money as measure of value; Napoleon III promoted urban rebuilding, credit institutions, and more railways; major exporter of foreign credit, signs liberal trade treaty with GB in 1860 to lower tariffs; legalizes strikes in 1864; NapIII encouraged mortgage banks, which aided agri development; Bank of France provides aid to complete major part of French railways to stimulate country's commercial and manufacturing growth, only emperor can propose legislation; press is censored and only approved candidates can run; Bonapartist party is from remnants of Orleanism and dispenses patronage to get support through local officials; centralizations of economic and political power in France, poor foreign policy; his support Maximilian in Mexico ended in execution- major blow to international prestige; he also believed Austria would win war against Prussia and negotiated away Belgium and Luxembourg; his liberal reforms led discontent to spread, in 1868, he allows freedom of assembly, which mobilizes opposition in monarchists, republicans, socialists; in 1870, he orders plebiscite to see if people like his policies, they respond yes, but it's craftily worded to ensure success, Queen Isabelle abdicates Spanish throne in 1868; Leopold is offered, but he's from Prussian Hohenzollern dynasty; NapIII is scared of Prussia on two fronts and demands candidacy be withdrawn; French envoy sent to talk with King William I-- Bismarck doctors telegram of transcript to make French appear tactless, Prussian public react with anger; NapIII declares war without allies (Italy and Austria won't comply), Prussian troops surround city; zoo animals and pets are eaten; red posters are placed on walls of capital calling for establishment of Paris Commune, formed after NapIII's capture at Sedan; proclaim republic and later negotiate terms with Bismarck after proclamation of German Empire at Versailles, elected chief executive of the provisional government by the monarchist-dominated National Assembly; wants Bismarck's help in creating a very conservative republic; resigns fr monarchist pressure in 1873, gives Alsace and part of Lorraine to German Empire, in March of 1871, Thiers sends army to retrieve cannon belonging to Nat'l Guard; women alert neighborhood, they execute two generals; troops then surround city and blast through barricades, neighborhood by neighborhood; executions are held throughout Paris and communists burn public buildings and homes of the wealthy; 15000-25000 Parisians are executed or dispatched during military trials, made of Jacobins, socialists, anti-clerical republicans; organized Paris' defense and enacted social reforms; thinks Paris should govern self and appeals to other 'sisters of liberty', ended night baking, created Labor Exchange, recognized women's unions, revamped workshops; negotiates with Bank of France-- doesn't try to take it overf, glimpse of the future prole revolution; Commune was a socialist, proletariat dictatorship; the bourgeois' repression shows how they will react in future, radical republican; close assc of monarchists with the Church leads many to see 'clericalism, there is the enemy'; uses republican institutions to appeal to the little man (peasants, local elites, lower middle class) and get them elected to form foundation of republicanism-- elections show emergence of new political class, succeeds Thiers; new gov't of moral order tied to Church; attempts to first appease republicans (majority in Chamber) with republican premier; MacMahon fires him (Crisis of May 16) and dissolves Chamber for new elections; more republicans- a new republican premier, and MacMahon's resignation in 1879, dominates French Third Republic's political life; able to dismiss government cabinets that have lose confidence of Chamber's members; executive kept weak for fear of Napoleonic figure-- Pres was chairman of the board to the Chamber, accept very conservative republic, though prefer something to center; against Church on right, anticlerical left; gets support of peasants with high agricultural Meline Tariff in 1892, freedom of the press, assembly; right for municipal councils to elect a mayor (NOT Paris- fear of becoming too powerful a position); increase education and public edifices, education minister; made primary education free and obligatory-- state allocated money to build village schools with GOAL of producing republican Frenchmen; creates normal schools to create republican teachers, potent political ideology; result of loss in Franco-Prussian war; increasing anti-Semitic after financial troubles are blamed on them (stemmed from their prominence in banking and the stock market); with Boulanger increasing anti-Semite anger, nationalism moves from left to right-- now it's a goal to get revenge, minister of war; anger by loss of Alsace-Lorraine; conservatives see hero to overthrow republic; first mass political campaign in France, drawing on nationalist anti-Semitism-- convinced Parisian shopkeepers that Jews are to blame for troubles, Legion of Honor revealed to be sold to highest bidder; French company bribes government to fund Panama Canal project-- difficult b/c of terrain, malarial condition-- and goes bankrupt; support of Church of moderate republicans against socialists; FINAL STRAW- Dreyfus Affair, government sets up inquiry to convict Boulanger; he is told by supporters to go to Chamber, declare a dictatorship, but he refuses; officials convince him they have evidence of treason; he goes to Belgium, shoots self on mistress' grave, publishes La Libre Parole-- publicized Canal scandal; increases nationalist anti-Semitism; forms League of Patriots in 1892-- nationalist and anti-Semitic, Alfred Dreyfus- army captain, Jewish immigrant from Alsace a/f German takeover; handwriting on documents given to Germans about French military operations resembles Dreyfus'; court-martial finds him guilty, Major Walsin Esterhazy is found to be guilty; Dreyfus remains fall-man-- better to have an innocent Jew exiled to South Africa than compromise army's image, political right and Church increase anti-Semitism; socialists rally behind Dreyfus; Pres grants pardon in 1899-- his return boosts Radical Party with alliance btwn anticlerical moderate republicans and socialists-- moves republic to the left, separates church and state; new legislation (1902) exiles religious orders from France; state takes possession of Church property and pays priests' salaries. 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