[51] Six weeks of riots further erupted in Bombay, resulting in the deaths of an estimated 900 people. During the British raj, or direct British rule over the Indian subcontinent, separate areas of the site were set up for Muslims and for Hindus. However, he also noted, "others say that it was constructed by 'Babor' [Babur]". The text mentions mosques having been constructed after demolishing the "temples of the idolatrous Hindus situated at Mathura, Banaras and Awadh etc." On the morning of 23 December, the event organisers asked Hindu devotees to come to the mosque for a darshan. Muslim Waqf Act for the better administration of waqf properties in the state. [9][10][11][12], In September 2010, the Allahabad High Court upheld the Hindu claim that the mosque was built on the spot believed to be Rama's birthplace and awarded the site of the central dome for the construction of a Rama temple. According to inscriptions on the site, it was built in the year 935 of the Islamic calendar (September 1528–September 1529 ce) by Mīr Bāqī, possibly a bey serving under the Mughal emperor Bābur. It is believed that one of his generals, Mir Baqi, built the Babri Masjid ("Babur's Mosque") in 1528 on his orders. Laid this religious foundation in the auspicious Hijra 930. The first recorded instance of conflict over the site between the religious communities was in 1853, during an era of sociopolitical transition throughout India. The Babri Masjid has taken the place in history strongly after the dispute of two communal groups in the subcontinent- Hindus, and Muslims around the right of the place. The district judge and the sub-judge visited the mosque in the presence of all parties and their lawyers and confirmed this fact. [48], In April 1984, the Vishwa Hindu Parishad (VHP) initiated a campaign to gather public support for Hindu access to the Babri Masjid and other structures that had been allegedly built over Hindu shrines. [13][14] The decision was subsequently appealed by all parties to the Supreme Court, wherein a five judge bench heard a title suit from August to October 2019. [29] Thomas Herbert described in 1634 the "pretty old castle of Ranichand built by a Bannyan Pagod of that name" which he described as an antique monument that was "especially memorable". On #6December1992, the Babri Masjid was demolished. … On 6 December 1992, BJP, VHP and RSS leaders gathered at the site to offer prayers and perform a symbolic kar seva. [citation needed], The date of construction of the Babri Masjid is uncertain. Later in the year 2002, in an attack on a train which carrying Hindu volunteers from Ayodhya, many were killed. Since its establishment in 1528, it has been under the control of Muslims until 19 th century. [25], In 1838, British surveyor Montgomery Martin wrote that the pillars in the mosque were taken from a Hindu temple. In the name of him who...; may God perpetually keep him in the world. [25], There are no records of the mosque from this period. The mosque was located on a hill known as Ramkot ("Rama's fort"). A section of historians, such as R. S. Sharma, deny this, and state that such claims of temple demolition sprang up only after the 18th century. The report concluded that it was over the top of this construction that the disputed structure was constructed during the early 16th century. Babri Masjid, also called Mosque of Babur or Baburi Mosque, formerly Masjid-i Janmasthan, mosque in Ayodhya, Uttar Pradesh, India. History Of Ayodhya Ram Mandir Babri Masjid | Ram Mandir Issue. According to inscriptions on the site, it was built in the year 935 of the Islamic calendar (September 1528–September 1529 ce) by Mīr Bāqī, possibly a bey serving under the Mughal emperor Bābur. Muslims were also awarded one-third area of the site for the construction of a mosque. In 1959, the Nirmohi Akhara filed another lawsuit demanding possession of the mosque. It divided the mosque premises into two courtyards; the Muslims offered prayers in the inner courtyard. While the three-judge bench was not unanimous that the disputed structure was constructed after demolition of a temple, it did agree that a temple or a temple structure predated the mosque at the same site. However it said that the mosque at Ayodhya was ascertained to have been built by Babur by "an inscription on its walls". Johann Bernoulli translated his work Descriptio Indiae (in Latin) into French, published in 1788. The next few layers date back to the Shunga period (second-first century BC) and the Kushan period. Pant issued orders to remove the idols, but Faizabad's deputy commissioner K. K. Nayar feared that the Hindus would retaliate and pleaded inability to carry out the orders. [45] Similarly, Udit Raj's Buddha Education Foundation has claimed the mosque was built over a Buddhist shrine. [48], In December 1949, the Hindu organisation Akhil Bharatiya Ramayana Mahasabha organised a non-stop nine-day recitation of the Ramacharitamanas just outside the mosque. [27][28] William Finch, the English traveller who visited Ayodhya around 1611, wrote about the "ruins of the Ranichand [Ramachand] castle and houses" where Hindus believed the great God "took flesh upon him to see the tamasha of the world." Kishore Kunal examined the original report in the British Library archives. This is the official map of Rama Janmabhumi (Ayodhya) dated 1717 CE. [65][66] According to the ASI team, the human activity at the site dates back to the 13th century BC. Details here", "Ayodhya verdict: The ASI findings Supreme Court spoke about in its judgment", "How the Babri Masjid Demolition Upended Tenuous Inter-Religious Ties in Pakistan", "As a reaction to Babri Masjid demolition, What had happened in Pakistan and Bangladesh on 6 December, 1992", "Ayodhya dispute: The complex legal history of India's holy site", "Supreme Court hearing ends in Ayodhya dispute; orders reserved", "Ram Mandir verdict: Supreme Court verdict on Ram Janmabhoomi-Babri Masjid case", "Where is Dhannipur? [48] Subsequently, the Rajiv Gandhi government ordered the locks on the Babri Masjid gates to be removed. [32], The European Jesuit missionary Joseph Tiefenthaler, who lived and worked in India for 38 years (1743–1785) and wrote numerous works about India, visited Ayodhya in 1767. Also, supreme court noted that the Babri Masjid was not built on a vacant land and the excavated underneath structure was not Islamic in nature. [26] The Ramcharitamanas of Tulsidas (1574) and Ain-i Akbari of Abu'l-Fazl ibn Mubarak (1598) made no mention of a mosque either. On 25 January 1986, a 28-year-old local lawyer Umesh Chandra Pandey, appealed to a court to remove the restrictions on Hindu worship in the Babri Masjid premises. Sections of this page They were affixed almost 285 years after the supposed construction of the mosque in 1528, and repeatedly replaced. [34], Francis Buchanan-Hamilton (Buchanan) did a survey of the Gorakhpur Division in 1813–14 on behalf of the British East India Company. Hindu activists attacking the Babri Masjid (“Mosque of Bābur”) in Ayodhya, Uttar Pradesh, India, December 1992. When viewed from the west side, it resembled the Atala Masjid in Jaunpur. O God! Senior BJP leader Murli Manohar Joshi, who was an accused in the Babri Masjid demolition case, has welcomed a CBI special court's verdict acquitting all the 32 accused in the case. The date of construction of the Babri Masjid is uncertain. In the Babri Masjid a passive environmental control system comprised the high ceiling, domes, and six large grille windows. In Ayodhya, 4000 to 5000 temples are there among them 2000 temples have constructed mainly for the lord ram. [62], In 2003, by the order of an Indian court, the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) was asked to conduct a more in-depth study and an excavation to ascertain the type of structure that was beneath the rubble. [20], The rulers of the Delhi Sultanate and their successors, the Mughals, were great patrons of art and architecture and constructed many fine tombs, mosques and madrasas. Babur accepted the faqirs' offer and returned to his homeland. [23][24], Modern architects have attributed this intriguing acoustic feature to a large recess in the wall of the mihrab and several recesses in the surrounding walls which functioned as resonators; this design helped everyone to hear the speaker at the mihrab. [16] The government allotted a site in the village of Dhannipur, 11 miles (18 km) from Ayodhya and 19 miles (30 km) by road from the site of the original Babri Masjid. [67], Muslim groups immediately disputed the ASI findings. In 1949, Hindu activists associated with the Hindu Mahasabha surreptitiously placed idols of Rama inside the mosque, after which the government locked the building to avoid further disputes. The demolition of the Babri Masjid was illegally carried out on 6 December 1992 by a large group of activists of the Vishva Hindu Parishad and allied organisations. [21][full citation needed], The architecture of the mosque is completely a replica of the mosques in the Delhi Sultanate. "[41][42][43], However, some historians have argued that it was built during the Delhi Sultanate period (13th–15th century), and may have been renovated during Babur's period. The mosque's acoustics were mentioned by him in his book Historic Structures of Oudhe where he says "for a 16th-century building the deployment and projection of voice from the pulpit is considerably advanced, the unique deployment of sound in this structure will astonish the visitor". include a sketch map of the Babri Masjid site. The inquiry concluded that the mosque belonged to the Sunnis, since it was commissioned by Babur, who was a Sunni. [48], On 16 January 1950, Gopal Singh Visharad filed a civil suit in the Faizabad Court, asking that Hindus be allowed to worship Rama and Sita at the place. [64], The summary of the ASI report indicated what appears to be the presence of a 10th-century shrine under the mosque. Court cases were filed by both Hindus and Muslims asking for access. My camera had ‘evidence’ of Babri Masjid demolition, but it was consigned to bin of history A man, with his face covered, instructs kar sevaks during the Babri Masjid demolition rehearsal in Ayodhya on 5 December 1992 | Photo: Praveen Jain [47] On 24 December 1885, the Sub Judge Pandit Hari Kishan Singh dismissed the suit. [1] According to the mosque's inscriptions, it was built in 1528–29 (935 AH) by general Mir Baqi, on the orders of the Mughal emperor Babur. Provocative speeches are being made and threats are issued. He agreed that the mosque was built on the land considered sacred by the Hindus, but ordered maintenance of status quo, since it was "too late now to remedy the grievance". Earlier, the only Hindu ceremony permitted at the site was a Hindu priest performing an annual puja. The History of a Dispute: Rolling Back the Years in the Ram Janmabhoomi-Babri Masjid Case In this November 11, 2019 file photo, women pray to the bricks reading "Shree Ram", which are expected to be used in constructing Ram temple, in Ayodhya. [52][53], Jihadist outfits like Indian Mujahideen and Lashkar-e-Taiba have cited the demolition of Babri Masjid as justification for attacks directed against India. [2] According to Hindus, Baqi destroyed a pre-existing temple of Rama at the site. The central bay of the built structure is labelled chhathi, which also denotes birthplace. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. [30], The earliest record of a mosque at the site traditionally believed by Hindus to be the birthplace of Rama comes from Jai Singh II (or "Sawai Jai Singh") – a Rajput noble in the Mughal court who purchased land and established a Jaisinghpura in the area surrounding the mosque in 1717 (as he had also done in several other Hindu religious places). In 1855, after a Hindu-Muslim clash, a boundary wall was constructed to avoid further disputes. @valayspeak's … The land was divided between Hindus and Muslims in 2010 by the decision of a high court. Here he met the Sufi saints Shah Jalal and Sayyid Musa Ashiqan and took a pledge in return for their blessings for conquering Hindustan. Babri Masjid built on Ram Janmabhoomi after 1717 CE March 24, 2018 Babri Masjid, the structure which was demolished on 6 December 1992 was not constructed atleast until 1717 CE. 1528: A mosque is built on the site which some Hindus say marks the spot where one of the most revered deities in Hinduism, Lord Ram, was born. A senior Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) leader, L K Advani, started a rath yatra, embarking on a 10,000 km journey starting from the south and heading towards Ayodhya. As demolitions of Babri Masjid marks its 25th anniversary today. [46], In 1853, a group of armed Hindu ascetics belonging to the Nirmohi Akhara occupied the site, and claimed ownership of the structure. The Baburnama (Chronicles of Babur) does not mention either the mosque or the destruction of a temple. [70], A land title case on the site was lodged in the Allahabad High Court, the verdicts of which was pronounced on 30 September 2010. However, these inscriptions appear to be of a more recent vintage. [63] The excavation was conducted from 12 March 2003 to 7 August 2003, resulting in 1360 discoveries. [citation needed], In 1936, the United Provinces government enacted U.P. [47] The Commissioner of Waqfs initiated an inquiry into the dispute. Sentiments of Hindus are being aroused around the construction of Ramjanmabhoomi temple. At the end of this event, on the night of 22–23 December 1949, a group of 50–60 people entered the mosque and placed idols of Rama there. The ASI submitted its report to the Allahabad high court. May always remain the crown, throne and life with the king. The walls around the Masjid and one of the domes of the Masjid were damaged during the riots. People of the South Asian countries have at least once heard in their lifetime about the Babri Masjid or the Ramar temple in Ayodya. [8], On 6 December 1992, a large group of Hindu activists belonging to the Vishva Hindu Parishad and allied organisations demolished the mosque, triggering riots all over the Indian subcontinent, killing around 2,000 people. The courtyard is labelled janmasthan and shows a Ram chabutra. [22], "A whisper from the Babri Masjid mihrab could be heard clearly at the other end, 200 feet [60 m] away and through the length and breadth of the central court" according to Graham Pickford, architect to Lord William Bentinck (1828–33). Allahabad HC To Hear Plea Against Acquittal Of Babri Mosque Demolition Accused On January 8, a petition was filed by Ayodhya residents Haji Mahmood Ahmad and Syed Akhlaq Ahmad. R. Nath has stated that, judging from the architecture of the mosque, it should be taken to have been built in the pre-Mughal period. In the petition, he stated that Babur had inscribed one word "Allah" above the door. These developments were apparently known to local Muslims. All about the site allotted to Sunni Waqf Board for a mosque", "The mood in Dhannipur, a village in Ayodhya, chosen for the 'Babri Masjid, "Open Spaces, Contested Places: Writing and the Fundamentalist Inscription of Territory", "Communal Violence and Terrorism in India", Narain, The Ayodhya Temple Mosque Dispute1993, "Young girls rally to safeguard secularism", Narain, The Ayodhya Temple Mosque Dispute 1993, "Muslimische Quellen in der Ram Janmabhumi Mandir-Babri Masjid Debatte", "Communal Violence and Terrorism in India: Issues and Introspections", "Jain body jumps into Ayodhya dispute, claims disputed site", "Buddhist body lays claim to the disputed Ayodhya site", "What If Rajiv Hadn't Unlocked Babri Masjid? The map shows an open court yard and a built structure with three temple spires (sikharas) resembling today's Babri Masjid with three domes. 26 Faizabad with the UP Sunni Central Board of Waqfs. These were reconstructed by the British Indian government. [56], The site has since become a magnet for pilgrims. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). [56], The Liberhan Commission set up by the Government to investigate the demolition later blamed 68 people including senior BJP, RSS and VHP leaders for the demolition. During the early medieval period (11–12th century), a but short-lived huge structure of nearly 50 metres north–south orientation was constructed. [4][5][6], Starting in the 19th century, there were several conflicts and court disputes between Hindus and Muslims over the mosque. At noon, a teenage Kar Sevak (volunteer) was "vaulted" on to the dome and that signalled the breaking of the outer cordon. In mid-nineteenth century, the Muslim activist Mirza Jan quoted from a book Sahifa-I-Chihil Nasaih Bahadur Shahi, which was said to have been written by a daughter of the emperor Bahadur Shah I (and granddaughter of Aurangzeb) in the early 18th century. This poetry, giving the date and eulogy, was written by the lazy writer and poor servant Fath-Allah-Ghori, composer. A mosque with three domes was constructed in its place. [17][18], The name "Babri Masjid" comes from the name of the Mughal emperor Babur, who is said to have ordered its construction. The translator doubted that the fable was part of the inscription but recorded that the scribe "positively says that the inscription was executed at the erection of this building". Such a sovereign who is famous in the world and in person of delight for the world. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Babri Masjid ("Mosque of Bābur") prior to its destruction in December 1992, Ayodhya, Uttar Pradesh, India. It also ordered the government to give an alternative five-acre plot to the Uttar Pradesh Sunni Central Waqf Board to replace the Babri Masjid that was demolished in 1992. Updates? December 6 remains the most controversial date in the history of India as the day marks the anniversary of demolition of Babri Masjid in Uttar Pradesh's Ayodhya. [54][55][56] Gangster Dawood Ibrahim, wanted in India for his alleged ties to the 1993 Bombay bombings which killed 257 people, is believed to have been infuriated by the Babri Masjid's demolition. The year 930 AH corresponds to 1523, three years before Babur's conquest of Hindustan. His counsellor and minister who is the founder of this fort masjid. Babri Masjid it is one of the largest mosque in Uttar Pradesh, built in 1528-29 by Mir Baqi, who was the general of King Babur. Mosques all over India were built in different styles; the most elegant styles developed in areas where indigenous art traditions were strong and local artisans were highly skilled. the young Babur came from Kabul to Awadh (Ayodhya) in disguise, dressed as a Qalandar (Sufi ascetic), probably as part of a fact-finding mission. This page was last edited on 17 December 2020, at 14:22. As thousands of Hindus started visiting the place, the Government declared the mosque a disputed area and locked its gates. Image (PTI) Image (PTI) The Babri Masjid was demolished 28 years ago on December 6, 1992, by ‘kar sevaks’ who claimed that the structure was built on the site of an ancient Ram temple in Ayodhya. The translation however contained five pieces of text, including two inscriptions. The existence of this temple is a matter of controversy. It was destroyed in 1992 amid decades of tensions over the site between Muslims and Hindus. [57] According to The Economist, "Among its souvenir stalls, those doing the briskest trade are the ones playing videos on a loop of Hindu fundamentalists demolishing the mosque. In his presence one of the grandees who is another King of Turkey and China. May Babar always pour the flowers of happiness; may remain successful. Omissions? [47] Periodic violence erupted in the next two years, and the civil administration had to step in, refusing permission to build a temple or to use it as a place of worship. These incongruities and mismatches made no impression on Buchanan, who maintained that the mosque was built by Babur. Lal Das, who wrote Awadh-Vilasa in 1672 describes the janmasthan (Rama's birthplace) accurately but does not mention a temple at the site.[36]. The system helped keep the interior cool by allowing natural ventilation as well as daylight. Twenty-eight years after a mob demolished the Babri Masjid in Uttar Pradesh’s Ayodhya town and sparked off a cycle of violence and riots across India that left thousands dead, a … The verdict by a special court in the Babri Masjid demolition case comes 28 years after kar sevaks razed the 16th century mosque and almost a year after the Supreme Court settled the land case in favour of a Ram temple at the disputed Ayodhya site. [25], Writer Kishore Kunal states that all the inscriptions claimed were fake. The pledge is not spelled out in the 1981 edition of Ghaffar's book. [73], Mosque in Ayodhya, India, destroyed in 1992, Professor R. Nath, who has examined these records, concludes that Jai Singh had acquired the land of, sfnp error: no target: CITEREFvan_der_Veer,_Ayodhya_and_Somnath1992 (, developed after the Delhi Sultanate was established, Conversion of non-Muslim places of worship into mosques, Conversion of mosques into non-Islamic places of worship, "ASI report on excavation of Ayodhya site to be published as book: Minister", "Did you know seven evidences unearthed by ASI proved a temple existed at Ayodhya? Babri was an important mosque of a distinct style, preserved mainly in architecture, developed after the Delhi Sultanate was established, seen also in the Babari Mosque in the southern suburb of the walled city of Gaur, and the Jamali Kamili Mosque built by Sher Shah Suri. No other inscriptions were recorded. The belief came into currency since 1813–14, when the East India Company 's surveyor Francis Buchanan reported that he found an inscription on the mosque walls which attested to this fact. In response, the mutawalli (Muslim trustee) of the mosque argued that the entire land belonged to the mosque. The Hindus offered their prayers on a raised platform, known as "Ram Chabutara", in the outer courtyard. Corrections? [48], Home Minister Vallabhbhai Patel and Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru directed the state's Chief Minister Govind Ballabh Pant and Uttar Pradesh Home Minister Lal Bahadur Shastri to have the idols removed from the mosque premises. In their verdict, the three judges of The Allahabad High Court ruled that the 2.77 acres (1.12 ha) of Ayodhya land be divided into three parts, with one-third going to the Ram Lalla or Infant Lord Rama represented by the Hindu Maha Sabha for the construction of the Ram temple, one-third going to the Islamic Uttar Pradesh Sunni Central Waqf Board and the remaining one-third going to Nirmohi Akhara, a Hindu religious denomination. Back then, when the Babri Masjid was brought down, the government had deployed policemen in large numbers at the Gyanvapi mosque in Varanasi to prevent a repeat of Ayodhya. The concluding report was published in an official gazette dated 26 February 1944. Rioting in the immediate aftermath resulted in the deaths of an estimated 2,000 people. According to this account, Aurangzeb (r. 1658–1707) had demolished the Ramkot fortress, including the house that was considered as the birthplace of Rama by Hindus. [71] The excavations by the Archaeological Survey of India were heavily used as evidence by the court that the predating structure was a massive Hindu religious building. Communal tension in the region worsened when the VHP received permission to perform a shilanyas (stone-laying ceremony) at the disputed site before the national election in November 1989. A subsequent appeal before the Judicial Commissioner W. Young was also dismissed on 1 November 1886. A chronology of events related to Babri Masjid- Ram Janmabhoomi 1528 Babar’s commander, Mir Baqi, builds the mosque 1856 Awadh’s Nawab Wajid Ali Shah removed from power and exiled to … According to Jain Samata Vahini, the mosque was built over a 6th-century Jain temple. Soon after, a large number of kar sevaks demolished the mosque. This momentum helped sweep the Bharatiya Janata Party to power in several states, including in Uttar Pradesh, and on December 6, 1992, security forces stood by as activists destroyed the mosque. 1853: First recorded incidents of religious violence at the site. The verdict came twenty-eight years after the Babri Masjid was razed and less than a year after the Supreme Court's historic judgment in the related Ram Janmabhoomi-Babri Masjid … [14][15] On 9 November 2019, the Supreme Court quashed the lower court's judgement and ordered the entire site (2.77-acre land) to be handed over to a trust to build the Hindu temple. [72], The five judges Supreme Court bench heard the title dispute cases from August to October 2019. This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/place/Babri-Masjid. 1528: The Babri Masjid is built in Ayodhya by Mir Baqi, upon the instructions of the Mughal emperor, Babur. Communal riots between Hindus and Muslims occurred across India immediately following demolition of the mosque. One was a Quranic verse. [e] [d] In addition to the two inscriptions and their monograms (turghas), a fable concerning a dervish called Musha Ashiqan was also included. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. The gateway of the middle bay—a pīshṭāq emphasizing the building’s presence and importance—was considerably higher than those of the side bays. Chamier also dismissed an appeal against the lower court judgment. On 18 December 1961, the Uttar Pradesh Sunni Central Waqf Board also filed a lawsuit, demanding possession of the site and removal of idols from the mosque premises. [14][15] On 9 November 2019, the Supreme Court ordered the land to be handed over to a trust to build the Hindu temple. [19] Before the 1940s, it was called Masjid-i Janmasthan ("mosque of the birthplace") including in official documents. The movement gained momentum in the following years, leading to riots in 1990 and the collapse of India’s ruling coalition. [f] The Babri Mosque followed the architectural school of Jaunpur Sultanate. Thus regional or provincial styles of mosques grew out of local temple or domestic styles, which were conditioned in their turn by climate, terrain, materials, hence the enormous difference between the mosques of Bengal, Kashmir and Gujarat. The Safdar Hashmi Memorial Trust (Sahmat) criticised the report saying that it said that "presence of animal bones throughout as well as of the use of 'surkhi' and lime mortar" that was found by ASI are all characteristic of Muslim presence "that rule out the possibility of a Hindu temple having been there beneath the mosque." It also ordered the government to give an alternative five-acre plot to the Uttar Pradesh Sunni Central Waqf Board to build a mosque,[16] which the government allotted in Dhannipur, Ayodhya. [33][b] Tiefenthaler was well-versed in Persian and Sanskrit, having written a Sanskrit–Persian dictionary, and other works in Persian. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. History after controversy . In 1945, the Shia Central Board moved to court against this decision. The inscription XLI was Persian poetry in the metre Ramal, which stated that the mosque was erected by a noble 'Mir Khan' of Babur. ", "Why there's no noise about the Mumbai riots", "The unfinished Partition of India and Pakistan", "Refworld | Chronology for Hindus in Bangladesh", "Report: Sequence of events on December 6", Uproar over India mosque report: Inquiry into Babri mosque's demolition in 1992 indicts opposition BJP leaders, Babri Masjid demolition was planned 10 months in advance – PTI, "Archaeology at the Heart of a Political Confrontation: The Case of Ayodhya", "ASI submits report on Ayodhya excavation", "ASI findings may not resolve title dispute", "Proof of temple found at Ayodhya: ASI report", "Ayodhya verdict yet another blow to secularism: Sahmat", "How Allahabad HC exposed 'experts' espousing Masjid cause", Ram Janm Bhumi Babri Masjid: Gist of Judgments, "Uttar Pradesh: Obscure Dhannipur village basks in its mosque glory", "Decision of Hon'ble Special Full Bench hearing Ayodhya Matters", Report of Liberhan Enquiry Commission on Demolition of Babri Masjid, Cities and towns in Ambedkar Nagar district, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Babri_Masjid&oldid=994781210, Attacks on religious buildings and structures in India, Buildings and structures demolished in 1992, Demolished buildings and structures in India, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, All Wikipedia articles written in Indian English, Articles with incomplete citations from May 2017, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2016, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License.

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